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Geothermal for Canada – Questions and Challenges

雷竞技手机版由Michelle Stirling贡献©2019

科学协会的朋友重新发布了我们的2016年报告:“艾伯塔省的地热?谨慎的案例“帮助辩论加拿大加热和发电形式的潜在福利和陷阱。虽然该文件采取特定的艾伯塔省,但它包括地热的全球概述。这是一个纯语言文档。

链接到完整报告:地热艾伯塔省为8月12日举行案例Rev2

The绿色Party“Mission Possible: The Green Climate Action Fund”平台倡导地热能作为加拿大加拿大烃类/化石燃料电力和发热的替代品。绿党平台假设我们可以“利用欺骗井的工人来管理可再生能源生成的工人,”安全性放弃了深水井。“On the surface, this appears to be a sensible ‘repurposing’ of similar drilling skills, by simply transferring these workers into geothermal as energy generation experts.

But things are not so simple when it comes to geothermal.

与许多形式的发电一样,地热是特定的位置。为了进一步混淆公众,地热是附加到两种不同形式的能源供应的术语。一种形式是直接的热量,其中在相对称义深度的地球进入地球中的孔孔,利用远端热量作为提供稳定的热源的方法。该热源最好与电气泵系统一起使用,地球成为热和冷空气的仓库,被电泵循环以充当HVAC系统。在一些地理位置中,这种设置有益处,具体取决于电力成本(运行循环空气的泵)并取决于稳定性和环境温差波动,这可以是一种成本效益的加热形式/冷却。

At first glance,部分of Alberta have excellent geothermal heating potential. However, a complicating factor is the often wildly fluctuating ambient temperatures due to Chinook winds, where temperatures can go from minus 20°C to plus 20°C in the space of a few hours. The response time of geothermal heating systems can be slow to keep up with this instability; likewise, the electrical energy required to pump the geothermal heat can be very expensive.

Another application for geothermal is that of electrical generation. Here, the Green Party ‘makes hay’ by claiming that using现有deep wells for geothermal would be an easy way to put lots of unemployed oil and gas workers back to work. The assumption is that these workers have similar skills used in drilling, that can easily be transferred to managing deep oil wells for geothermal electrical generation. This is a questionable assumption because electrical generation is quite different than oil well drilling – and to date, there is no assurance that such deep oil geothermal electricity generation potential exists anywhere but a few places in Alberta, BC and NWT, and some possible spots in Quebec.(Smart Prosperity刚刚在萨斯喀彻温省的第一个这样的计划上发布了一个博客。试点项目正在开发天鹅山)

绿党的“特派团可能”也在第7页中说明它‘ban fracking’没有例外。然而,深井地热发电依赖于压裂,以使“热岩”暴露在泵入钻孔中的冷水中。当冷水击中热岩时,产生蒸汽,并且将该蒸汽泵向达表面以驱动发电涡轮机。

There is a new, untested, alternative method proposed by geothermal proponents in Canada – but the problem is that this form is untested. There is加拿大在运营中没有大规模地热目前没有这个alternativ的试点项目e method. Therefore, it is not reasonable to set a nation’s energy generation and employment policy based on something that does not exist, and that requires a process that the Green Party election platform strictly forbids, that being fracking.

此外,与风和太阳能一样的许多“自然驱动的”发电建议一样,支持者通常会说地热将从地球中挖掘“自由”的能量。Majorowicz和Grasby(2019)的一项研究表明,地热能根本不能与传统化石燃料提供的发电竞争,费用过高,except in certain unique geographic situations.

与所有形式的电力和发热一样,加拿大地热存在潜在的应用 - 但也有严重的局限性。〜100,000个失业的石油工人的质量可能是在地热行业的工作,也不能直接转移到地热发电的技能。同样,加拿大的温差仅使地热成为潜在的补充权力提供者,而不是主要提供者。

我通过电子邮件向Majorowicz博士,地热领域的专家致电,要求额外的见解。他写道:

“… the real potential for geothermal based power production is only in the western and northwestern deep part of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) basin where temperatures most suitable for that purpose can be found >150°C. [Temperatures of] >120°C can also be considered if very large flow rates secured.

[地热和油/气体]之间的差异是能量密度,以便将苹果与苹果进行比较,所以(在我们的论文中讨论它)是少数级,因此它将需要几个双层地热井系统更换WCSB中的一个平均生产油和气体能量。

We also need to remember that pumping and reinjecting [to geothermal wells] all take large amounts of [electrical] power.

此外,根据所使用的运行流体的温度,地热发电厂的热效率为约10%+/- 4%。

It is at least 3 times that or more in coal power plants….”

(维基百科reports: Typical thermal efficiency for utility-scale electrical generators is around 37% for coal and oil-fired plants, and 56 – 60% (LEV) for combined-cycle gas-fired plants.)

除了这些能量密度和位置问题外,还不清楚绿党如何调和它们的绝对拒绝,以其对地热需求的压缩。

To further the public understanding of geothermal power generation, we have reissued our 2016 report –“艾伯塔省的地热?谨慎的案例。“(Download link at the top of the page)

Also, posted below is a plain language “Speakers’ Corner” debate between Thana Boonlert (now Green Party candidate for Calgary Centre @Thana4yyc ) and me, Michelle Stirling (Communications Manager for Friends of Science Society @stirlingmg @FriendsOScience), on the topic of geothermal as a replacement or complement to coal-fired power generation in Alberta. (Aug. 2016)

媒体的成员应考虑与Jacek Majorowicz博士和斯蒂芬E.Grasby博士等地热专家参与。在这一复杂的话题上获得专家见解。他们最近的出版物是:“Deep geothermal energy in Canadian sedimentary basins VS. Fossils based energy we try to replace – Exergy [KJ/KG] compared”

Michelle Sticling是科学学会朋友的通信经理,这是加拿大记者,AAAS和APS协会的成员。

Comment from a reader, a former oil well completions engineer:

经过熟练的钻井后,完成团队设计和安装:
1)将形成与井孔连接的穿孔
2)任何刺激 - 如酸化,压裂等等
3) the producing tubing
我正在评论这一点,因为它与地热能量的潜力有关。大多数是“生产者”的现有井都有现有的穿孔。如果井被遗弃 - 但是放弃过程并不是万无一失的话,那些穿孔是“密封的”。因此,对于旧井被视为地热候选人,必须确定旧穿孔的状态。此外,必须评估腐蚀对壳体完整性的长期影响。要做这些评估很贵。
Puna, Hawaii

即使在理想的地热的地方,也有挑战:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/puna_geothotmal_venture.

Geothermal vs Coal-fired power for Alberta –
争论在2016年8月的Boonlert和Michelle Stirling之间

https://youtu.be/sNhz1t7qMic

现实检查地热:美国拥有世界上最具安装的地热能力,但地热对美国能源供应的贡献仅为0.4%。

Source:http://www.earth-policy.org/mobile/releases/highlights48

Source:https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.php?id=427&t=3

4 Comments

  1. 戴夫哈桑

    Two thoughts:
    1)耗尽的热原位项目(例如SAGD)可提供可行的地热源;岩石已被加热,井就位,深度相当适度地减少泵送所需的能量。
    2) I’m not an expert on these types of calculations but I did push around some numbers several years ago regarding geothermal feasibility in areas of the WCSB with “normal” geothermal gradients and found that the power recovered would be less that the power required to pump the fluids. I don’t remember the details now but the “normal” geothermal gradient in the WCSB requires fairly deep wells to access rock at high enough temperature. This might be worth some study by somebody who is more familiar with geothermal power generation.

  2. Andrew Roman

    Sweden claims to make use of geothermal. Do you have any information of how widespread it is there?

  3. Sara Steiner-Jackson

    来自夏威夷的Pahoa的Aloha!

    I would be very careful with long-term geothermal… You can see that after 20+ years of reinjection into the Lower East Rift Zone of Kilauea our rift zone was compromised, the pressure in the volcano dropped and the lava fissured in a beautiful line directly along PGV’s southern border… wiping out over 700 homes and displacing several thousand persons.

    Of course the geothermal company denies anything to do with the eruption… even though they hit the very lava that erupted in 2018 in 2005 while they were drilling. They knew it was there and continued to erode the rift… and voila, the 2018 eruption of Kilauea Volcano…

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